Day Eleven: Fort Scott, Kansas to Miami, Oklahoma

October 23, 2019

Retracing Lena Huppler Bevers’ Travel Log

Thurs. – Oct. 23.

Left Fort Scott, drove through the coal mines, ate dinner in Pittsburg.  Left there and drove through the rock salt mines and oil wells and had supper and stayed over night in Miami. – Lena Bevers

This morning when my mother and I were eating our breakfast at a fast food place in Fort Scott, Kansas, on the wall behind us there was a panoramic photograph of downtown Fort Scott in 1917.  Here is a picture I took of that photograph:

The town of Fort Scott had its beginnings as a small settlement beside the frontier fort of the same name.  The fort was established in 1842 and was “charged with keeping the peace between American Indians and white settlers.”1  The fort was abandoned in 1853, but the town continued to grow.

West Wall Street, Fort Scott, Kansas in 1916 (Courtesy of Bourbon County Historical Preservation Association, Kansas)

Before departing Fort Scott today, we briefly visited one of the historic downtown streets and the site of the military fort.  The grounds of the fort are maintained by the National Park Service.  We briefly visited two of the exhibit halls.

Historic Downtown Fort Scott, Kansas (Photograph by MRW October 23, 2019)
(Photograph by MRW October 23, 2019)
Fort Scott parade grounds (Photograph by MRW October 23, 2019)
This army escort wagon was restored by Werner Wagon Works, the workshop where we were given a tour in Horton, Kansas, three days ago. (Photograph by MRW October 23, 2019)
The bricks under this cannon appeared to be original from the 1800s. (Photograph by MRW October 23, 2019)

When Herbert and Lena headed south with their family on October 23, 1919, they continued driving on the Jefferson Highway. Lena recorded that they drove through coal mines. Southeastern Kansas was filled with mining camps at that time. Mining companies were mining for coal using underground mine shafts. This technique of coal mining declined during the 1920s and 1930s and the last mineshaft was closed in 1960.2 The region looks different now than it did when Lena and Herbert were here. As we traveled down U. S. Highway 69, there was an intermingling of woodlands, pastures and crop fields.

“The tipple, engine house, and tailing pile of former Crowe Company No. 16 shaft mine, active in the 1920’s.”3 (Courtesy of Kansas State Historical Society, Copy and Reuse Restrictions Apply)
“Part of Croweburg Camp as it existed between 1910 and 1920. “Crackerbox” houses are in the foreground and squarish houses appear in the background.”4 (Courtesy of Kansas State Historical Society, Copy and Reuse Restrictions Apply)
“Croweburg Camp in eastern Crawford county about 1920. Squarish houses with “hipped” roofs were common in the company camp.”5 (Courtesy of Kansas State Historical Society, Copy and Reuse Restrictions Apply)

Lena wrote in her travel log that the Bevers family ate their dinner in Pittsburg, Kansas.  As my mother and I headed to Pittsburg to have lunch, we stopped in the town of Franklin and visited the Miners Hall Museum.

This replica of a pole marker of the Jefferson Highway was sitting in the Miners Hall Museum. (Photograph by MRW October 23, 2019)

A map from the Jefferson Highway International Guide shows two branches of the highway.6  The Bevers family was traveling on the branch on the left.  Lena’s daughter Florence recorded that they drove near Arma, Edward and Garland, had dinner in Pittsburg, then drove through Crestline, Riverton, Lowell, Baxter Springs, Picher, Cardin and Commerce.7

(Courtesy of Jefferson Highway Association)
(Courtesy of Jefferson Highway Association)8

One of the buildings that Lena and Herbert probably drove past in Pittsburg was the Stilwell Hotel.  The Jefferson Highway International Guide had an advertisement for the hotel.9  (See below in the upper left corner.)  On the opposite page there are advertisements of services for tourists.

(Courtesy of Jefferson Highway Association)
Stilwell Hotel (Photograph by MRW October 23, 2019)
At Baxter Springs, Historic U. S. Route 66 merged with U. S. Highway 69 (Photograph by MRW October 23, 2019)
Lena stated that they drove through rock salt mines and oil wells. This mound was the only evidence we saw along U. S. highway 69 of rock salt mining in the past and we did not see any oil wells. (Photograph by MRW October 23, 2019)

Lena only occasionally mentions the type of facility they stayed at each night.  The Jefferson Highway Association published a Tourist Camp Manual in 1923 which gives us a clue of what they may have done.  The manual identifies towns where tourists can camp along the highway.  One of the places noted in the manual is in Miami, Oklahoma.10  We ended our day by checking into a motel at 4:00 PM.

Notes:

  1. Kansas Historical Society, Fort Scott (February 2013), https://www.kshs.org/kansapedia/fort-scott/17808.
  2. William E. Powell, Former Mining Communities of the Cherokee-Crawford Coal Field of Southeastern Kansas (Kansas Historical Quarterly, vol. 38, no. 2, Summer 1972): 187-99, https://www.kshs.org/p/former-mining-communities-of-the-cherokee-crawford-coal-field/13222.
  3. William E. Powell, Former Mining Communities of the Cherokee-Crawford Coal Field of Southeastern Kansas: 187-99.
  4. William E. Powell, Former Mining Communities of the Cherokee-Crawford Coal Field of Southeastern Kansas: 187-99.
  5. William E. Powell, Former Mining Communities of the Cherokee-Crawford Coal Field of Southeastern Kansas: 187-99.
  6. Jefferson Highway Association, International Tourist Guide, Jefferson Highway (Saint Joseph, Missouri: Combs Printing Co., 1923): 29.
  7. B. Winkelmann, Our Trip to Texas [Transcription of Our Trip to Texas by Florence Bevers, 1919] (unpublished, n. d.): 2.
  8. Jefferson Highway Association, International Tourist Guide, Jefferson Highway: 22.
  9. Jefferson Highway Association, International Tourist Guide, Jefferson Highway: 26-27.
  10. Jefferson Highway Association, Tourist Camp Manual, Jefferson Highway (Saint Joseph, Missouri: Combe Printing Co., 1923): 37.

Day Ten: Kansas City, Kansas to Fort Scott, Kansas

October 22, 2019

Retracing Lena Huppler Bevers’ Travel Log

Wed. – Oct. 22.

Left Kansas City, Kan. about 9 o’clock.  Drove through Kansas City, Mo., drove around in it for about 2 hours trying to get out.  Ate dinner in Belton.  Ate supper on the road and stayed all night in Fort Scott. – Lena Bevers

The downtown business district of Kansas City, MO, is in the center background of this photo taken in 1915.1 (Courtesy of My Genealogy Hound)

On October 22, 1919 the Bevers family started their day by going across the Kansas river from Kansas City, Kansas to Kansas City, Missouri.  The running directions of Route 1042 of The Official Automobile Blue Book 1917 state that there was a 15-cent toll for crossing the Intercity Viaduct one-way and 25-cent toll for round-trip.2  (This is the bridge that crossed the Kansas River at Minnesota Avenue.)  But in the 1920 edition of the Blue Book, there is no toll.3  In 1917 Kansas City, Kansas and Kansas City, Missouri bought the bridge and in 1918 the two cities opened the bridge as a free bridge.4  So when Herbert and Mr. McElhany drove over the viaduct they didn’t have to pay a toll.  A sister bridge was built in 1962.  The two bridges are now called the Lewis and Clark Viaduct.  Presently, the eastbound lanes of Interstate Highway 70 travel over the original inter-city viaduct built in 1907.5  When my mother and I crossed the Kansas River today, we were driving on the same bridge that Herbert and Lena drove on.

(From The Official Automobile Blue Book 19206)

Upon entering Missouri, the speed law was: “‘Careful and prudent manner’; not exceeding 25 miles per hour.”7  After crossing the bridge, the two-car caravan somehow lost their way in Kansas City, Missouri.  They “drove around in it for about 2 hours trying to get out.”8  Possibly they were trying to exit Kansas City, Missouri, on the King of Trails Highway.  Lena only mentions traveling through one town between Kansas City and their final destination, Fort Scott, which doesn’t provide enough information to determine on which side of the Kansas-Missouri border they traveled on.  Florence’s travel log gives additional information: “Drove thru Stillwell, Louisburg, La Cygne, Trading Post, Pleasanton, Linton, Prescott, Fulton, and stayed all night in Ft. Scott.”9  According to a 1924 Rand McNally map of Nebraska and Kansas, the King of Trails Highway does not travel through any of those towns.10  Apparently, the highway they got on was the Jefferson Highway, another north-south transcontinental route.

The Jefferson Highway was envisioned by Edwin Thomas Meridith, a businessman and political activist of Des Moines, Iowa.11  He and a group of associates organized the national Jefferson Highway Association in 1915, establishing its terminal points as Winnipeg, Canada and New Orleans, Louisiana.  This gave the Jefferson Highway the distinction of being the first international route to transect the United States.  The highway was named in honor of President Thomas Jefferson for his role in the Louisiana Purchase.  It was also known as the “From Pine to Palm” route and “The Vacation Route of America” route.

The Jefferson Highway Association published a guide book in 1923 to assist tourists when they were traveling on the Jefferson Highway.12  The image below is a map of three branches of the Jefferson Highway from Kansas City, Missouri to Fort Scott, Kansas.  The center branch goes through some of the towns in Florence’s list.  The map also shows four branches within the city limits.  This is one example of road designations in the early 1900s that confused automobile tourists.

(Courtesy of Jefferson Highway Association)

While in Kansas City, Missouri, my mother and I decided to go to the National World War 1 Memorial.  World War 1 ended on November 11, 1918 and the site for this Memorial was dedicated on November 1, 1921.  At the time of their trip to Texas, Herbert and Lena had two sons serving in the army, Clarence and Edgar.13

(Photograph by MRW October 22, 2019)
(Photograph by MRW October 22, 2019)
(Photograph by MRW October 22, 2019)
(Photograph by MRW October 22, 2019)
A view of Kansas City, Missouri, from the observation deck of the Liberty Memorial Tower (Photograph by MRW October 22, 2019)

From our motel in Kansas City, Kansas, it took about 45 minutes to get to the Memorial and we found the location quite easily.  When we left the memorial, we chose to take the city streets instead of a freeway and it took us about 45 minutes until we were out of the suburbs of the city, only having a little difficulty staying on our route.  Then it took another twenty minutes to arrive at Belton, the town where Lena wrote that they had their dinner.  Belton has an historical main street and we decided to have our lunch at a café that was decorated with Betty Boop and other retro décor.  It was nearly 2:00 PM when we ordered our lunch, a bison burger for me and a grilled ham and cheese for my mother.

(Photograph by MRW October 22, 2019)
This restored building in Belton, Missouri, is where we ate our lunch. (Photograph by MRW October 22, 2019)

When we left Belton, we traveled on a winding country road, but when we came to Louisburg, Kansas, one of the towns Florence mentioned, our only option to continue toward Fort Scott was U. S. Highway 69, a modern freeway.  A few times we got off the freeway to drive through towns in Florence’s list.  Two of the towns are utilizing old buildings for public libraries.  In Prescott, the library had formerly been a school house and we were invited inside to see the upstairs room that was set up as an historical classroom. We finally arrived at our motel at 5:00 PM.

Louisburg Public Library is in a 1917 building.(Photograph by MRW October 22, 2019)

Notes:

  1. Kansas City, Missouri, 1915, Business District, http://www.mygenealogyhound.com/vintage-photographs/missouri-photographs/MO-Kansas-City-Missouri-1915-Business-District-historic-photo.html.
  2. Automobile Blue Book Publishing Company, Official Automobile Blue Book 1917, vol. 5 (New York: Automobile Blue Book Publishing Company, 1917): 1102, https://ia800405.us.archive.org/15/items/case_gv1024_a92_1917_vol_5/case_gv1024_a92_1917_vol_5.pdf.
  3. Automobile Blue Book Publishing Company, Official Automobile Blue Book 1920, vol. 7 (New York: Automobile Blue Book Publishing Company, 1920): 165, https://ia601208.us.archive.org/26/items/case_gv1024_a92_1920_v_7/case_gv1024_a92_1920_v_7.pdf.
  4. Intercity Viaduct, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intercity_Viaduct.
  5. Intercity Viaduct, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intercity_Viaduct.
  6. Automobile Blue Book Publishing Company, Official Automobile Blue Book 1920, vol. 7: 65-66.
  7. Automobile Blue Book Publishing Company, Official Automobile Blue Book 1920, vol. 7: 863.
  8. Lena Bevers, Our Trip to Texas (unpublished, 1919): 3A.
  9. B. Winkelmann, Our Trip to Texas [Transcription of Our Trip to Texas by Florence Bevers, 1919] (unpublished, n. d.): 2.
  10. Rand McNally and Company, Commercial Atlas of America, “Auto Trails Map, District No. 12, Southern Nebraska, Eastern Colorado, Kansas, Northeastern New Mexico, Northern Oklahoma” (Chicago: Rand McNally & Company, 1924): 372-373, https://www.davidrumsey.com/luna/servlet/detail/RUMSEY~8~1~201708~3000668:AutoTrails-Map,-Southern-Nebraska.
  11. Iowa Department of Transportation, History of the Interstate Trail, Jefferson Highway and Jefferson Association: 1, https://iowadot.gov/autotrails/history-of-the-jefferson-highway.
  12. Jefferson Highway Association, International Tourist Guide, Jefferson Highway (Saint Joseph, Missouri: Combs Printing Co., 1923): 25, https://jeffersonhighway.org/resources/Documents/JH-International-Tourist-Guide-1923.pdf.
  13. C. M. Bevers, personal communication with E. J. Jones (October 17, 2019).

Day Nine: Atchison to Kansas City, Kansas

October 21, 2019

Retracing Lena Huppler Bevers’ Travel Log

Tues. – Oct. 21.

Left Horton about 8:30 A. M.  Had dinner in Atchison.  Had to stay about 4 hours while we got our car fixed.  Left there about 4:30 P. M. and drove until 8 o’clock.  Had supper and stayed all nite in Kansas City, Kan. – Lena Bevers

When Herbert Bevers and Mr. McElhany got on the road on October 21, 1919, they started out from Horton, Kansas at 8:30 AM.  Horton is 12 miles south of Hiawatha and about five miles west of Everest.  The town cannot be found on the running directions below because Horton is west of the route described below.  Starting at mile 18.1 we can follow the route that the two cars probably took to get to Kansas City, Kansas.  Florence Bevers wrote in her travel log that they drove through Everest, Huron, Lancaster, Shannon, Leavenworth, Lansing, Wallula and Piper.1  The introduction to Route 101 in The Official Automobile Blue Book states that this route is a section of the King of Trails – confirmation that Herbert Bevers and Mr. McElhany were driving on the King of Trails.2

A section of a 1924 Rand-McNally map showing a route from Horton to Kansas City, Kansas.3

When the two cars arrived in Atchison, Herbert had to get their car fixed which took about four hours.  In Florence’s travel log, she states “they fixed the timer on our car.”4  In the above extract from the 1920 Blue Book, there is an advertisement for a garage.5  Maybe this is where the work was done on the Bevers’ car.  When Florence wrote “timer,” perhaps she was referring to the odometer, which would have been very important for keeping abreast of the distance traveled, if they were following running directions, such as those in the 1920 Blue Book

In the description of Atchison above, at the end of the article it mentions the “splendid” public buildings: a $125,000 Atchison County Court House and a $100,000 U. S. Post Office.6  When my mother and I left our motel, we drove around the city to see some of the sights.  We went to the courthouse, the post office, the river front and the pedestrian mall.  I needed to mail a letter so I went inside the post office to buy envelopes and stamps.  The lobby had beautiful woodwork.

Atchison County Court House (Photograph by MRW October 21, 2019)
In 1869, Abraham Lincoln gave an address near the corner of 5th Street and Parallel Street in Atchison, Kansas (Photograph by MRW October 21, 2019)
U. S. Post Office, Atchison, Kansas (Photograph by MRW October 21, 2019)
Interior of the U. S. Post Office, Atchison, Kansas (Photograph by MRW October 21, 2019)
Amelia Earhart was born in Atchison, Kansas. A bronze statue of her stands in the middle of the pedestrian mall of Commercial Street, Atchison, Kansas. Around the base of the statue are the words: “Let there be peace on earth, and let it begin with me.” (Photograph by MRW October 21, 2019)
Commercial Street, Atchison, Kansas, about 19107 (Courtesy of My Genealogy Hound)

After our tour of Atchison, we headed south on U. S. Highway 73 which closely follows the King of Trails route.  At mile 66.9 in the Route 101 running directions above, it tells the driver to pass a federal prison on the left.8  When we reached the point on U. S. Highway 73 where it seemed the prison should be, we searched the landscape for a building that looked like a prison.  Finally, as we came over a hill, there on the left was a huge building.  It was the U. S. Penitentiary at Leavenworth, a very impressive building.  A sign in front of the grounds declared that photos were not to be taken, so I cannot post any pictures.  Construction of the building began in March 1897 and continued for about 25 years.9  To see a picture of the prison, go to the Federal Bureau of Prisons website: https://www.bop.gov/locations/institutions/lvn/index.jsp.

Between Leavenworth and Kansas City, instead of the farm land we had been viewing for a week, we traveled through urban and suburban commercial districts and residential districts.  U. S. Highway 73 becomes a modern four-lane highway south of Lansing.  According to the introduction to Route 101 above, the Bevers family drove on dirt until they were within 17 miles of Kansas City, then they drove on macadam.10  Leaving Atchison at 4:30 PM, they drove about 55 miles and arrived in Kansas City about 8:00 PM.

My mother and I had difficulty finding our motel, because our printed instructions weren’t correct, and I couldn’t understand how to read the Triptik from AAA.  So, we entered the address of the motel in the Garman navigation device and trusted it to lead us to the motel.  It worked and we arrived at our motel around 3:00 PM. 

Notes:

  1. B. Winkelmann, Our Trip to Texas [Transcription of Our Trip to Texas by Florence Bevers, 1919] (unpublished, n. d.): 2.
  2. Automobile Blue Book Publishing Company, The Official Automobile Blue Book 1920, vol. 7 (New York: Automobile Blue Book Publishing Company, 1920): 163-64, https://ia601208.us.archive.org/26/items/case_gv1024_a92_1920_v_7/case_gv1024_a92_1920_v_7.pdf.
  3. Rand McNally and Company, Commercial Atlas of America, “Auto Trails Map, District No. 12, Southern Nebraska, Eastern Colorado, Kansas, Northeastern New Mexico, Northern Oklahoma” (Chicago: Rand McNally & Company, 1924): 372-373, https://www.davidrumsey.com/luna/servlet/detail/RUMSEY~8~1~201708~3000668:AutoTrails-Map,-Southern-Nebraska.
  4. B. Winkelmann, Our Trip to Texas: 2.
  5. Automobile Blue Book Publishing Company, The Official Automobile Blue Book 1920, vol. 7: 71.
  6. Automobile Blue Book Publishing Company, The Official Automobile Blue Book 1920, vol. 7: 71.
  7. Commercial Street, Atchison, Kansas, (ca. 1910), http://www.mygenealogyhound.com/vintage-postcards/kansas-postcards/KS-Atchison-Kansas-Commercial-Street-vintage-postcard.html#
  8. Automobile Blue Book Publishing Company, The Official Automobile Blue Book 1920, vol. 7: 163-4.
  9. United States Penitentiary, Leavenworth, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Penitentiary,_Leavenworth.
  10. Automobile Blue Book Publishing Company, The Official Automobile Blue Book 1920, vol. 7: 163-4.

Day Eight: Percival, Iowa to Atchison, Kansas

October 20, 2019

Retracing Lena Huppler Bevers’ Travel Log

Mon. – Oct. 20.

Stayed in Auburn till 12 A. M. while they fixed on the cars.  Ate dinner and then we pulled out.  Got into Horton about 6 P. M.  Had supper and stayed all night. – Lena Bevers

Lena writes in her travel log that the traveling party spent the morning of October 20 in Auburn, Nebraska because the men needed to fix their cars.  Florence adds that “they fixed the fan on our car and the frame on McElhaney’s car.”1  My mother and I didn’t head down the road right away either.  In the 2018 AAA TourBook Guide for Nebraska, my mother found the Arbor Day Farm in Nebraska City.  This farm is operated by the Arbor Day Foundation, whose mission statement is: “We inspire people to plant, nurture, and celebrate trees.”2  We spent the morning viewing some of their informative exhibits, walking one of their trails and experiencing a very unique attraction: Treetop Village.  If you are looking for evidence that you still have a kid in you, then try this out.

(Photograph by MRW October 20, 2019)

Lena stated that they headed down the road from Auburn at 12:00 PM after they ate dinner.  Today we started down the road from Nebraska City about 12:30 PM after sharing a caramel apple at the Arbor Day Farm.  U. S. Highway 75 roughly follows the King of Trails Highway until north of Dawson, Nebraska, then U. S. Highway 73 follows the King of Trails.  Florence recorded that they traveled through Howe, Stella, and Verdon in Nebraska, then Reserve and Hiawatha in Kansas.3  The two-car caravan ended their day in Horton, Kansas at about 6:00 PM.  In six hours, they had traveled about 63 miles, at not much more than 10 miles per hour.

Extract of Route 1041 from The Official Automobile Blue Book 19174

When my mother and I traveled down U. S. Highway 75, we went past and through several very small towns, for example Verdon has a population of 172.  We could not find a business district in Verdon nor did we find one in Reserve.  Auburn, the town where the Bevers family spent the previous night is small also, as well as Horton where they stopped on this day.  Hiawatha was the largest town we drove through.  It was very interesting to see the well-maintained historical buildings there.

Hetzel’s Block in Auburn, Nebraska, dated 1890 (Photograph by MRW October 20, 2019)
This building in Horton is dated 1915. The stone above the window says “Motor Inn.” (Photograph by MRW October 20, 2019)
Originally called the Hiawatha Memorial Auditorium, this 1920 building houses the Brown County Historical Society. (Photograph by MRW October 20, 2019)
Brick paved streets encircle the Courthouse Square of Hiawatha. (Photograph by MRW October 20, 2019)
Lawrence Building, Hiawatha, Kansas, dated 1896 (Photograph by MRW October 20, 2019)

In 1919, the speed laws in Kansas were: “‘Reasonable and proper.’ ‘A rate of speed in excess of 25 miles an hour shall be presumptive evidence of driving at a rate which is not careful and prudent in case of injury to the person or property of another.’  Twelve miles per hour in city limits; eight miles an hour at crossings, intersections, bridges, curves, descents, etc.  Six miles an hour at city intersections.”5  The 1920 edition of The Official Automobile Blue Book informed its readers that: “There is now a great interest in Kansas in the matter of good roads, and many miles of macadam, brick and concrete are being constructed under the supervision of the state highway commission.”6

When the Bevers family passed through Hiawatha, they crossed over another transcontinental highway. Below is a section of a Rand McNally map dated 1924, designating the King of Trails Highway with the number 27.7  (As I’ve mentioned before, this number corresponds to the map legend, it is not a highway number assigned by a governmental agency.)  At Hiawatha the King of Trails intersects with the Pikes Peak Ocean-to-Ocean Highway (number 47 on the map.)  The Ocean-to-Ocean Highway connected New York City with Los Angeles.8

Section of Rand McNally Map of Nebraska & Kansas, 1924
Ocean to Ocean Highway, 1913 (Public Domain; Courtesy of Federal Highway Administration)

We didn’t stay in Horton as Lena’s family did because we weren’t able to locate online a motel in Horton, so instead we made a reservation in Atchison, Kansas.  Before leaving Horton for our motel, we stopped at Werner Wagon Works.  The proprietors restore and manufacture wagons in the style that were used in the eighteen hundreds.  They kindly gave us a tour of their workshop.  It was fascinating to see and imagine how our ancestors traveled before automobiles were invented.

An army escort wagon that will be restored by Werner Wagon Works. (Photograph by MRW October 20, 2019)
A restored wagon completed about 1991 (Photograph by MRW October 20, 2019)
Some of the restoration work is completed with this band saw built in the early nineteen hundreds. (Photograph by MRW October 20, 2019)

Notes:

  1. B. Winkelmann, Our Trip to Texas [Transcription of Our Trip to Texas by Florence Bevers, 1919] (unpublished, n. d.): 2.
  2. Arbor Day Foundation, https://www.arborday.org/generalinfo/about.cfm.
  3. B. Winkelmann, Our Trip to Texas: 2.
  4. Automobile Blue Book Publishing Company, Official Automobile Blue Book 1917, vol. 5 (New York: Automobile Blue Book Publishing Company, 1917): 1099-1100, https://ia800405.us.archive.org/15/items/case_gv1024_a92_1917_vol_5/case_gv1024_a92_1917_vol_5.pdf.
  5. Automobile Blue Book Publishing Company, Official Automobile Blue Book 1917, vol. 5: 1234.
  6. Automobile Blue Book Publishing Company, Official Automobile Blue Book 1920, vol. 7 (New York: Automobile Blue Book Publishing Company, 1920): 859, https://ia601208.us.archive.org/26/items/case_gv1024_a92_1920_v_7/case_gv1024_a92_1920_v_7.pdf.
  7. Rand McNally and Company, Commercial Atlas of America, “Auto Trails Map, District No. 12, Southern Nebraska, Eastern Colorado, Kansas, Northeastern New Mexico, Northern Oklahoma” (Chicago: Rand McNally & Company, 1924): 372-373, https://www.davidrumsey.com/luna/servlet/detail/RUMSEY~8~1~201708~3000668:AutoTrails-Map,-Southern-Nebraska.
  8. Rick Martin, “The Highway,” Pikes Peak Ocean to Ocean Highway, http://www.ppoo.org/.