Reminiscences of Uncle Bob, Part Three

After his family spent 15 months in Omaha, Nebraska (see Reminiscences of Uncle Bob, Part Two), Robert L. Daily reported in an interview when he was about 84 years-old that his family moved to Kansas because “Mother wanted to get back to the farm again, so Dad went lookin’ around again,” and Robert gives a date: “We moved down to Kansas in 1909.  So, that was, see, when I was comin’ nine years old.  We landed down in March, and ‘course, I was nine years old in May, see.”1  Robert also said that in that year his father’s brother William brought his oldest daughter Inez to live with Robert’s family when they were living in Kansas, and Robert said that Inez looked like her father.2

In the trunk that holds many Daily memorabilia, the portrait below can be found.  The photograph is labeled “Wm. J. Daily and C. M. Daily” and in the lower right corner of the image the words “Topeka, Kansas” are embossed below the photographer’s name.  It is most likely that this portrait was taken when William brought his daughter to Kansas.  William would have been about 47 years-old and Charles, 53 years-old.

Wm. J. Daily and C. M. Daily

One of Charles’ grandsons recalled what his mother Gladys and grandmother Maggie said about the farm: “I can remember my mother talking about a farm in Kansas which had lots of walnuts on it” and they cracked a lot of walnuts.3  Robert identified the location of the farm in his interview:

Uncle Bob:  … Kilmer, Kansas was where it was at, just a flag station.

Interviewer:  It wasn’t Topeka?

Uncle Bob:  Topeka was, was 8 miles from us.

Interviewer:  Oh, I see.

Uncle Bob:  It was our —

Interviewer:  Mom always said Topeka.

Uncle Bob:  No, that’s our post office.  … We were 8 miles out from Topeka at Kilmer, just a flag station.  And uh, we generally went to Meriden, that went the other direction, four miles to Meriden.  For, up to, uh —

Interviewer:  For shopping?

Uncle Bob:  Yeah.  ‘Course, we’d go to Topeka for circus or for, and the capitol, see.  I can remember going through the capitol in Topeka, Kansas, y’see.  Yeah, yeah.4


A section of a Shawnee County, Kansas, map showing Soldier Township5

A flag station is “a railroad station where trains stop only when a flag or other signal is displayed or when passengers are to be discharged.”6  Northeast of Topeka, Kilmer was a small station on the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad which crossed the southeast corner of Soldier Township in Shawnee County.7  The Daily family may have ridden a train into Topeka to see a circus performance.  One of the circuses that was scheduled to perform in Topeka was the Barnum and Bailey Circus.  It came to Topeka on September 7, 1909, but the city newspaper reported that the circus couldn’t be set up because of the weather.8  Record-breaking rain (over eight inches) fell that day, flooding the site where the circus was to be set up.9 The following year, the Ringling Brothers Circus arrived on September 5.  In the Monday evening issue of the Topeka State Journal, which sold for 2 cents, the following article described the spectacle that the circus provided.

Cropped image from The Topeka State Journal, September 5, 1910

Ringlings’ “Big Top” today is the attraction in Topeka.  Sunday the interest was hardly less.  Thousands of persons watched the parade which came on time nothwithstanding the rain, with hardly less interest than did an almost equal number see the unloading and transfer of the circus from the Rock Island yards to the Kenwood tract near Fourth and Buchanan streets.

As the pageant was a chain of novel surprises likewise was the trail of wagons and the animals following the arrival.  The parade was nearly three miles long and the aforementioned surprises extended from the twenty-four horse band chariot in the lead to the tail end.  The rain fell all right and continued during the forenoon, making it difficult for the wagons to leave the grounds.

The show arrived here Sunday morning after some delay, in coming from St. Joseph.  About 9 o’clock the first wagon reached Kenwood.  Immediately the work of putting up the huge cook tent was started.  Stands began to spring up on adjacent property to the main entrance to the grounds between Buchanan and Lincoln streets on Fourth street.

Most of the paraphernalia was transferred in wagons, the majority of them being pulled by six horses each.  These were driven out Sixth avenue after having left the Rock Island yards.  Arriving at Buchanan street they again turned north to the Kenwood tract.  As soon as the wagons left the Buchanan street pavement going onto Fourth street difficulty was experienced.  The recent rains had made the unpaved street soft and the wagons mired to the hubs.  It was necessary to unload some of them before they could be moved.  Others were moved with 22, 24 and even 32 horses.

No sooner than the work of pitching the cook tent was started, crowds began to arrive from all directions.  From noon on there was a steady stream of humanity down Buchanan street from Sixth avenue to Kenwod.  A baby carriage brigade seemed to have been formed.  For two or three hours the day seemed to have been set apart for their display alone.  There was grandpa and papa and mamma and uncle and even forty-seventh cousin of each of them.  All had a baby.  In fact every woman who had a baby to loan was in great demand.  That condition seemed not to abate.

Crowd Gets a Ducking.

Pedestrians were not alone in their evidenced curiosity.  Car after car reached the tract, all of them packed.  Extras were put on and these, too, were filled to capacity.  Twenty or thirty spectators got wet when the circus employes stopped at Fifth and Buchanan streets to cool and water the elephants and the polar bears.  A hose was attached to the water plug and the operation started.  No sooner had the bears been given a bath than the hippopotamus arrived.  He had to have a bath, too.

Then was when the fun started.  An “accident” occurred.  Mr. Keeper intentionally or not allowed the water hose to get away from him.  He struggled with the rubber tube which under the pressure of water lunged and pulled and drenched a number of nearby onlookers.  Still he struggled manfully.  The hose got him down.  More persons were drenched.  Finally when the crowd had retired to a safe distance he gained control of it again.

Noticeable about the circus aggregation was that of all the employees none of them was given to loud talking or profanity in the time required to get the paraphernalia in its place.  Another noticeable thing was that the usual number of hardened men were conspicuously absent.  Most of the following was represented in young men appearing to be college students and others of that character.

Features of the Parade.

In the parade some of the remarkable features were teams of elephants, camels, zebras and llamas hitched to ornate tableau floats and driven like horses.  It has been supposed that the zebra could not be driven.  The Ringlings have proved otherwise.  In all nearly 700 horses were exhibited, the most of them Norman Percherons.  Many of them were white.

More than 1,200 men, women and children from Australian bushwackers to those advertised as the royalty of Asia and Europe took part.  Music was provided by six brass bands, a cathedral organ, a calliope, barbarian orchestras, fife and drum corps, church chimes, trumpeters and Oriental string and reed musicians.10


Besides the circus, Robert mentioned that he had visited the capitol of Kansas in Topeka.

This sepia colored photograph [below] shows the capitol in Topeka, Kansas. Located on twenty acres of land once owned by Cyrus K. Holliday, work began on October 17, 1855 when the cornerstone was laid for the east wing. Thirty-seven years later the statehouse, an example of French Renaissance architecture and Corinthian details, was completed at a total cost of $3,200,588.92.”11

Kansas State Capitol, Topeka, Kansas

On April 26, 1910 a census taker visited the Daily family at the farm they were renting in Soldier Township, Shawnee County, Kansas.  Charles is mistakenly recorded as being 56 years-old (he was 53), Maggie was 42 years-old.  Their five children were living with them:  Gladys, age 17; Oranna, 14; Robert, 9; Iona, 7 and Elizabeth, 5.12  In addition, there were also in the household Inez Daily, age 16 and Alpha Bailey, age 20.  Inez was the daughter of William Daily, noted above.  Alpha was Charles’ nephew, the son of his sister Cynthia, who had come to live with the Dailys in 1908.  All of the children, including Gladys and Inez, attended school for a period of time between September 1, 1909 and the end of April 1910.  Robert said that Inez went to school for a couple of years and then got married in Kansas.13  Charles and Maggie kept ownership of their house in Omaha and according to the 1910 U. S. census of Omaha, the house was being rented by a bartender named Samuel J. Barth.  In the Barth household were his wife Sophia and daughter Edith.14

The same census taker that visited the Daily family also visited a farmer named Lawson Bonnewitz, who owned a farm in Soldier Township.15  Maggie and Lawson were cousins.  Jacob Bonewitz (b. 1761) was their great-grandfather.  Two of Jacob’s sons were Joseph Bonewitz (b. 1790), who was Lawson’s grandfather, and John Adam Bonewitz (b. 1792), who was Maggie’s grandfather.  


One event in Kansas that Robert related was the baptism of two of his sisters:

Uncle Bob:  … When we lived in Kansas we was able to go to church more than any place else.  ‘Course, we, we had, uh, afternoon services, see.

Interviewer:  Oh, uh, circuit rider type.

Uncle Bob:  Yeah, and o’ course, a minister came out from, I don’t know where.  Meriden or Topeka, one o’ the two.  And I guess he was a Baptist minister, see, ‘cuz Gladys and Oranna were both, uh, immersed in the river.

Interviewer:  Oh!  Uh huh.

Uncle Bob:  At that time, … ‘course, they were old enough to be baptized.  I think Baptists, when you get right down to it.

Interviewer:  I suppose that they —

Uncle Bob:  And they don’t believe, didn’t believe in baptizing before 12 years old, see.

Interviewer:  Um hmm, um hmm.

Uncle Bob:  An’ Oranna an’ Gladys were o’ that age.  I didn’t get in on it.  See, it was before I was 12 years-old.  Either ten or eleven is what I was.  I can remember it so well.  We, uh, like the, like the song goes, “Shall we gather at the river,” see.

Interviewer:  Um hmm, um hmm.

Uncle Bob:  And that’s why we gathered at the river and the minister walked in, out in the pasture, down in the pasture of our neighbors.

Interviewer:  Um hmm.

Uncle Bob:  That’s where we had our meeting, went through there.  That’s where Gladys and Oranna —

Interviewer:  Was it Omaha then?  This would be the Missouri River? 

Uncle Bob:  No, no, this was just a creek [pronounced crick].

Interviewer:  Oh, okay.

Uncle Bob:  A creek that went through the pasture, down in Kansas.16


Robert may have been referring to a hymn written by Robert Lowry in 1864, entitled, “Shall We Gather at the River?”

  1. Shall we gather at the river,
    Where bright angel feet have trod,
    With its crystal tide forever
    Flowing by the throne of God?
  2. On the margin of the river,
    Washing up its silver spray,
    We will talk and worship ever,
    All the happy golden day.
  3. Ere we reach the shining river,
    Lay we every burden down;
    Grace our spirits will deliver,
    And provide a robe and crown.
  4. At the smiling of the river,
    Mirror of the Savior’s face,
    Saints, whom death will never sever,
    Lift their songs of saving grace.
  5. Soon we’ll reach the silver river,
    Soon our pilgrimage will cease;
    Soon our happy hearts will quiver
    With the melody of peace.

Refrain:
Yes, we’ll gather at the river,
The beautiful, the beautiful river;
Gather with the saints at the river
That flows by the throne of God.
17


Joseph Esli Daily’s birth announcement which is stored in the trunk that holds Daily memorabilia

On February 8, 1911, Maggie gave birth to another son, Joseph Esli.  Sadly, the boy didn’t live to his first birthday.  Charles and Maggie buried Joseph in Evergreen Memorial Park in Omaha, where they had buried their first son, who had died in 1899.  Robert gives a few details about Joseph’s short life.

Interviewer:  But, the baby boy —

Uncle Bob:  Oh, Joseph?

Interviewer:  Joseph — was born and died in Topeka.

Uncle Bob:  Yeah, yeah.  … Mother always came up to see Grandma, once a year, around Christmas time, see.  And ‘course, other years Iona an’ Elizabeth, your mother, would come up, too.  But when Joseph was born and a baby, she wanted the baby to, Grandma to see the baby, see.  Joseph.  And o‘ course, ah, that year was the time that I, Joseph and I came up with her.

Interviewer:  You mean up to Omaha.

Uncle Bob:  Yeah, up to Omaha.  See, he was born in 1911.  Passed away in January 1912.

Interviewer:  Oh, okay.

Uncle Bob:  That was Joseph, he was just ‘leven months old.  … but we’d been up to Omaha, and got back, and then he’d got the croup.  And ah, he was a little weak anyway in the spine.  He never had set up, really.  He was happy.  He’d lay on the lounge and watch us kids play on the floors and that.  But when it come to this here getting the croup.  So, why, that’s when —

Interviewer:  Went into pneumonia, I suppose.

Uncle Bob:  Yeah, suppose.  In those days, that’s what they called it.  Lungs filled up some, I guess.18


For years the details were somewhat of a mystery regarding when and how Charles and Maggie’s youngest daughter’s name came to be Elizabeth J. Best Viola Daily.  Since no one has been able to locate a birth record for Elizabeth, it is unclear whether she had that name at her birth or if she acquired the name later.  One of Elizabeth’s children thought that she had been given money to carry on the name of a woman named Elizabeth J. Best, another thought the woman’s name was J. Best and that property was involved.

Early in 2019 one of Elizabeth’s children was searching through old items that are kept in the trunk which has been previously mentioned and “… he came across some interesting info.  Mom stayed with someone in Indiana and went to school.  He came up with the name Stults and money being passed back and forth.  I suggested this may be the money Mom received for being named after Elizabeth J Best.  This morning I typed Elizabeth J Best in the internet search line and came up with Elizabeth J Stults Best.”19  The source of this name was the Find-a-Grave memorial page of Elizabeth J. Best (nee Stults) of Huntington County, Indiana.20  The webpage identifies the cemetery where she was buried, it is the same cemetery where one of Maggie’s brothers is buried,21 as well as her maternal grandparents Harman and Barbara Smith22,23 and her great-grandfather Jacob Flora (Barbara’s father).24

In August 2019, I found a document accessible on Ancestry.com that revealed some intriguing details.  It is the will of Elizabeth J. Best, dated October 26, 1910.  In the will, Elizabeth J. Best Daily of Omaha, Nebraska, is named as an heir.  Additionally, in March 2020, when listening to Robert’s interview, some more details came to light:

Uncle Bob:  … Elizabeth was heir to some money back East.

Interviewer:  I heard about that.

Uncle Bob:  See, uh, Elizabeth Best was her name. And, Grandma’s name was Josephine Smith, as they went to school together.

Interviewer:  Ohhh.

Uncle Bob:  But they didn’t have no, no middle names, see.  So, Grandma took the name of — Elizabeth’s initial, E.  She was Josephine E. Bonewitz, that’s her married [name].  And Best took, took, uhh —

Interviewer:  Josephine, took the J.

Uncle Bob:  Yeah, took the J.  And she was, that’s the reason, she got the name Elizabeth J. Best, see.

Interviewer:  Okaaay.

Uncle Bob:  See, that’s the way she picked that up.

Interviewer:  And this was a school friend of Josephine Smith?  Okay.

Uncle Bob:  Yes, that’s right, and she was very wealthy.  O’ course, as I mentioned, ever’thin’ ended up, why, she [Robert’s sister Elizabeth] lived with the woman at the time in 1912.  Elizabeth was born in 1905, 7 years old.

Interviewer:  Um hmm.

Uncle Bob:  And, o’ course, uh then, ahh, all the time she was goin’ to school afterwards – the Elizabeth Best, or Elizabeth J. Best, ahh, had a friend, I can’t say what his name was, the lawyer, the lawyer, friend lawyer.  And he was bound and determined that her word was law, see, ever’thin’ she said.  And Elizabeth’s other relatives tried to, tried to break the, uh —

Interviewer:  The will.

Uncle Bob:  — the will.  He stuck in there and o’ course all the while she was goin’ to school, up ‘til she was 18, why, anythin’ needed for school, that’d come off the, off her inheritance.

Interviewer:  Well, she had quite an inheritance, then!

Uncle Bob:  I don’t know what it was, I never knew what it was.  I just know that she uh, afterwards when she come home, why, ‘course that’s what really put Willis on his feet there, because ahh, when she inherited that money, why ‘o course, uh, they bought out, uh — I can’t say what his name was down there —

Interviewer:  He bought down in that Grover area.

Uncle Bob:  Down in Grover area, see.  An’ o’ course, she gave each of us fifty dollars.  I think somewhere roun’ twenty-five hundred dollars is what she got.  ‘Course, at that time, was pretty good money.25

Elizabeth Stults was born in Stark County, Ohio,26 the same county in which Josephine Smith was born.  Both of their families moved to Huntington County, Indiana.27,28  Robert explains that they were school mates.  When Elizabeth Stults got married, she added a middle initial “J” to her name, becoming Elizabeth J. Best.  And when Josephine Smith got married, she added the middle initial “E” to her name, becoming Josephine E. Bonewitz.

Best’s husband Joseph C. Best had passed away seven years before she wrote her will and their only two children had died in infancy.29  So, at the time of the writing of her will, Best had no direct heirs.  Her will names 11 people as heirs, including Josephine’s granddaughter, Elizabeth J. Best Daily.

The date that the will was probated was April 21, 1911.  Along the edges of the will there is an accounting of when funds were distributed to the heirs.  The first distribution was October 24, 1914 and the last was December 23, 1916.  Each time a distribution is noted for Elizabeth J. Best Daily, it is received by a person named M. B. Stults.  It appears that this was the guardian for young Elizabeth.  Perhaps this is the friend or lawyer to which Robert referred in the interview.  Robert’s explanation clears up some questions, including the name of the woman, and confirmation that there was money given, and he also provides information as to why property was attached to the mystery.

Last will and testament of Elizabeth J. Best,
a friend of Elizabeth Daily’s grandmother Josephine Bonewitz

On January 12, 1913, Maggie’s father, John Esli Bonewitz, passed away in Omaha.  About thirteen years earlier, when Charles and Maggie’s baby died two days after its birth, Charles had bought a lot in Evergreen Memorial Park (Section A, Block 26, Lot 3).  Their son Joseph Esli was buried in that lot on January 5, 1912, and Maggie’s father was buried there on January 14, 1913 alongside the two sons.

Interment record of the cemetery lot owned by C. M. Dailey
in Evergreen Memorial Park, Omaha, Nebraska

Presently, in the cemetery lot, there are no grave markers for the un-named baby nor for Joseph Esli.  The interment record states that Joseph Esli was buried in grave #7 and John Esli was buried in grave #4.  It doesn’t indicate the location of the un-named baby, but a very helpful employee of the cemetery diagramed the lot, and there is a high probability that the baby was buried in grave #8. 

Two months after Maggie’s father passed away, the Daily family moved back to Omaha again.  In the next blogpost, Uncle Bob will continue his reminiscences of the next two years while they resumed living there.


1 M. R. Wilson, transcription of Robert Lee Daily Interview by R. Thiele, recording (ca. 1984): 6.

2 Wilson, Robert Lee Daily Interview: 13 & 16.

3 L. A. Bevers, personal communication with M. R. Wilson, August 10, 2010 and November 24, 2010.

4 Wilson, Robert Lee Daily Interview: 22-23.

5 The Kenyon Company, Inc., Atlas and Plat Book of Shawnee County Kansas (Topeka, Kansas: Kansas Farmer and Mail & Breeze, 1921): 5, https://www.kansasmemory.org/item/224002/page/7.

6 “Flag station,” Dictionary.com, https://www.dictionary.com/browse/flag-station.

7 James L. King, ed., History of Shawnee County, Kansas and Representative Citizens (Chicago: Richmond & Arnold, 1905): 55, https://ia902604.us.archive.org/7/items/historyofshawnee00king/historyofshawnee00king.pdf.

8 “Big Show Goes By,” The Topeka State Journal, September 7, 1909, https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn82016014/1909-09-07/ed-1/seq-1/.

9 “Eight-Inch Rain,” The Topeka State Journal, September 7, 1909, https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn82016014/1909-09-07/ed-1/seq-1/.

10 “Big Show Is Here,” The Topeka State Journal, September 5, 1910, https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn82016014/1910-09-05/ed-1/seq-5/.

11 Capitol, Topeka, Kansas, postcard, ca. 1910, https://www.kansasmemory.org/item/215285.

12 “United States Census, 1910,” database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:33SQ-GRJZ-GJ1?cc=1727033&wc=QZZQ-PF3%3A133640801%2C140502701%2C134349501%2C1589089094 : 24 June 2017), Kansas > Shawnee > Soldier > ED 140 > image 8 of 22; citing NARA microfilm publication T624 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.).

13 Wilson, Robert Lee Daily Interview: 14-15.

14 “United States Census, 1910,” database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:33S7-9RVD-94BH?cc=1727033&wc=QZZW-D1C%3A133641701%2C133718401%2C136867001%2C1589089011 : 24 June 2017), Nebraska > Douglas > Omaha Ward 11 > ED 81 > image 15 of 30; citing NARA microfilm publication T624 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.).

15 “United States Census, 1910,” database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:33S7-9RJZ-GRH?cc=1727033&wc=QZZQ-PF3%3A133640801%2C140502701%2C134349501%2C1589089094 : 24 June 2017), Kansas > Shawnee > Soldier > ED 140 > image 20 of 22; citing NARA microfilm publication T624 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.).

16 Wilson, Robert Lee Daily Interview: 21-22.

17 Robert Lowry, “Shall We Gather at the River?,” 1864, Timeless Truths, https://library.timelesstruths.org/music/Shall_We_Gather_at_the_River/.

18 Wilson, Robert Lee Daily Interview: 6.

19 E. J. Jones, email communication with M. R. Wilson, February 2, 2019.

20 “Elizabeth J Stults Best,” https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/63599577/elizabeth-j-best.

21 “Rosco Neff Bonewitz,” https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/62071397/rosco-neff-bonewitz.

22 “Harman Smith,” https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/62815250/harman-smith.

23 “Barbara Marguet Flora Smith,” https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/62071353/barbara-marguet-smith.

24 “Jacob Flora,” https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/62852349/jacob-flora.

25 Wilson, Robert Lee Daily Interview: 7-8.

26 “Joseph C. Best,” Biographical Memoirs of Huntington County, Ind. (Chicago: B. F. Bowen, 1901): 587.

27 “United States Census, 1850,” database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:S3HY-6QMQ-QDH?cc=1401638&wc=95RX-2JQ%3A1031336301%2C1031975601%2C1031975602 : 9 April 2016), Indiana > Huntington > Huntington county > image 49 of 194; citing NARA microfilm publication M432 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.).

28 “United States Census, 1860,” database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:33S7-9YBY-65K?cc=1473181&wc=7QK5-RD2%3A1589426070%2C1589426540%2C1589423705 : 24 March 2017), Indiana > Huntington > Huntington > image 41 of 41; from “1860 U.S. Federal Census – Population,” database, Fold3.com (http://www.fold3.com : n.d.); citing NARA microfilm publication M653 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.).

29 “Joseph C Best,” https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/61993911/joseph-c-best.

An Introduction to Charles Monroe Daily

  • Born on September 30, 1856 near New Albany, Indiana
  • Parents: Joseph S. Daily and Amanda Black
  • His mother died when he was 9 years-old
  • As a young man he worked his way across Illinois and Iowa
  • He arrived in Omaha, Nebraska about 1888 and worked at jobs such as clerk, foreman and teamster
  • Married Maggie Oranna Bonewitz on November 18, 1891
  • Children: Gladys, Oranna, Robert, Iona, Elizabeth, Joseph (and an un-named baby boy)
  • A tornado destroyed their Omaha home on Easter Sunday 1913
  • Charles and Maggie farmed outside of Omaha, Nebraska, outside of Topeka, Kansas and north of Watertown, South Dakota
  • Retired from farming in 1932 and moved into Watertown, South Dakota
  • Died on March 9, 1945 at the age of 88 and is buried in Mount Hope Cemetery, Watertown, South Dakota
Charles Monroe Daily on his wedding day November 18, 1891

An Introduction to Maggie Oranna Bonewitz

  • Born on November 9, 1867 in Fairfield, Iowa
  • Parents: John Esli Bonewitz and Josephine E. Smith
  • Moved with her parents to Omaha, Nebraska about 1880
  • Married Charles Monroe Daily on November 18, 1891
  • Children: Gladys, Oranna, Robert, Iona, Elizabeth, Joseph (and an un-named baby boy)
  • In 1909 Maggie and Charles decided to try farming; they moved their family to a farm in Soldier Township, Shawnee County, Kansas
  • In January 1913, Maggie and Charles returned to Omaha
  • On Easter Sunday, March 23, 1913, a tornado drove through the west side of Omaha, destroying Maggie and Charles’ home
  • In April 1915 Maggie and Charles moved their family to a farm in Rauville Township, Codington County, South Dakota
  • Sometime later Maggie and Charles moved to a farm in Lake Township, Codington County, South Dakota
  • Maggie and Charles retired from farming in 1932 and moved into Watertown, South Dakota
  • Her husband Charles died on March 9, 1945
  • Died March 15, 1947 at the age of 79 and is buried in Mount Hope Cemetery, Watertown, South Dakota
Maggie Bonewitz, on her wedding day
November 18, 1891

Day Eleven: Fort Scott, Kansas to Miami, Oklahoma

October 23, 2019

Retracing Lena Huppler Bevers’ Travel Log

Thurs. – Oct. 23.

Left Fort Scott, drove through the coal mines, ate dinner in Pittsburg.  Left there and drove through the rock salt mines and oil wells and had supper and stayed over night in Miami. – Lena Bevers

This morning when my mother and I were eating our breakfast at a fast food place in Fort Scott, Kansas, on the wall behind us there was a panoramic photograph of downtown Fort Scott in 1917.  Here is a picture I took of that photograph:

The town of Fort Scott had its beginnings as a small settlement beside the frontier fort of the same name.  The fort was established in 1842 and was “charged with keeping the peace between American Indians and white settlers.”1  The fort was abandoned in 1853, but the town continued to grow.

West Wall Street, Fort Scott, Kansas in 1916 (Courtesy of Bourbon County Historical Preservation Association, Kansas)

Before departing Fort Scott today, we spent a short time visiting one of the historic downtown streets and the site of the military fort.  The grounds of the fort are maintained by the National Park Service.  We briefly perused two of the exhibit halls.

Historic Downtown Fort Scott, Kansas (Photograph by MRW October 23, 2019)
(Photograph by MRW October 23, 2019)
Fort Scott parade grounds (Photograph by MRW October 23, 2019)
This army escort wagon was restored by Werner Wagon Works, the workshop where we were given a tour in Horton, Kansas, three days ago. (Photograph by MRW October 23, 2019)
The bricks under this cannon appeared to be original from the 1800s. (Photograph by MRW October 23, 2019)

When Herbert and Lena headed south with their family on October 23, 1919, they continued driving on the Jefferson Highway. Lena recorded that they drove through coal mines. Southeastern Kansas was filled with mining camps at that time. Mining companies were mining for coal using underground mine shafts. This technique of coal mining declined during the 1920s and 1930s and the last mineshaft was closed in 1960.2 The region looks different now than it did when Lena and Herbert were here. As we traveled down U. S. Highway 69, there was an intermingling of woodlands, pastures and crop fields.

“The tipple, engine house, and tailing pile of former Crowe Company No. 16 shaft mine, active in the 1920’s.”3 (Courtesy of Kansas State Historical Society, Copy and Reuse Restrictions Apply)
“Part of Croweburg Camp as it existed between 1910 and 1920. “Crackerbox” houses are in the foreground and squarish houses appear in the background.”4 (Courtesy of Kansas State Historical Society, Copy and Reuse Restrictions Apply)
“Croweburg Camp in eastern Crawford county about 1920. Squarish houses with “hipped” roofs were common in the company camp.”5 (Courtesy of Kansas State Historical Society, Copy and Reuse Restrictions Apply)

Lena wrote in her travel log that the Bevers family ate their dinner in Pittsburg, Kansas.  As my mother and I were heading to Pittsburg to have lunch, we stopped in the town of Franklin and visited the Miners Hall Museum.

This replica of a pole marker of the Jefferson Highway was sitting in the Miners Hall Museum. (Photograph by MRW October 23, 2019)

A map from the Jefferson Highway International Guide shows two branches of the highway.6  The Bevers family was traveling on the branch on the left.  Lena’s daughter Florence recorded that they drove near Arma, Edward and Garland, had dinner in Pittsburg, then drove through Crestline, Riverton, Lowell, Baxter Springs, Picher, Cardin and Commerce.7

(Courtesy of Jefferson Highway Association)
(Courtesy of Jefferson Highway Association)8

One of the buildings that Lena and Herbert probably drove past in Pittsburg was the Stilwell Hotel.  The Jefferson Highway International Guide had an advertisement for the hotel.9  (See below in the upper left corner.)  On the opposite page there are advertisements of services for tourists.

(Courtesy of Jefferson Highway Association)
Stilwell Hotel (Photograph by MRW October 23, 2019)
At Baxter Springs, Historic U. S. Route 66 merged with U. S. Highway 69 (Photograph by MRW October 23, 2019)
Lena stated that they drove through rock salt mines and oil wells. This mound was the only evidence we saw along U. S. highway 69 of rock salt mining in the past and we did not see any oil wells. (Photograph by MRW October 23, 2019)

Lena only occasionally mentions the type of facility they stayed at each night.  The Jefferson Highway Association published a Tourist Camp Manual in 1923 which gives us a clue of what they may have done.  The manual identifies towns where tourists can camp along the highway.  One of the places noted in the manual is in Miami, Oklahoma.10  We ended our day by checking into a motel in Miami at 4:00 PM.

Notes:

  1. Kansas Historical Society, Fort Scott (February 2013), https://www.kshs.org/kansapedia/fort-scott/17808.
  2. William E. Powell, Former Mining Communities of the Cherokee-Crawford Coal Field of Southeastern Kansas (Kansas Historical Quarterly, vol. 38, no. 2, Summer 1972): 187-99, https://www.kshs.org/p/former-mining-communities-of-the-cherokee-crawford-coal-field/13222.
  3. William E. Powell, Former Mining Communities of the Cherokee-Crawford Coal Field of Southeastern Kansas: 187-99.
  4. William E. Powell, Former Mining Communities of the Cherokee-Crawford Coal Field of Southeastern Kansas: 187-99.
  5. William E. Powell, Former Mining Communities of the Cherokee-Crawford Coal Field of Southeastern Kansas: 187-99.
  6. Jefferson Highway Association, International Tourist Guide, Jefferson Highway (Saint Joseph, Missouri: Combs Printing Co., 1923): 29.
  7. B. Winkelmann, Our Trip to Texas [Transcription of Our Trip to Texas by Florence Bevers, 1919] (unpublished, n. d.): 2.
  8. Jefferson Highway Association, International Tourist Guide, Jefferson Highway: 22.
  9. Jefferson Highway Association, International Tourist Guide, Jefferson Highway: 26-27.
  10. Jefferson Highway Association, Tourist Camp Manual, Jefferson Highway (Saint Joseph, Missouri: Combe Printing Co., 1923): 37.

Day Ten: Kansas City, Kansas to Fort Scott, Kansas

October 22, 2019

Retracing Lena Huppler Bevers’ Travel Log

Wed. – Oct. 22.

Left Kansas City, Kan. about 9 o’clock.  Drove through Kansas City, Mo., drove around in it for about 2 hours trying to get out.  Ate dinner in Belton.  Ate supper on the road and stayed all night in Fort Scott. – Lena Bevers

The downtown business district of Kansas City, MO, is in the center background of this photo taken in 1915.1 (Courtesy of My Genealogy Hound)

On October 22, 1919 the Bevers family started their day by going across the Kansas river from Kansas City, Kansas to Kansas City, Missouri.  The running directions of Route 1042 of The Official Automobile Blue Book 1917 state that there was a 15-cent toll for crossing the Intercity Viaduct one-way and 25-cent toll for round-trip.2  (This is the bridge that crossed the Kansas River at Minnesota Avenue.)  But in the 1920 edition of the Blue Book, there is no toll.3  In 1917 Kansas City, Kansas and Kansas City, Missouri bought the bridge and in 1918 the two cities opened the bridge as a free bridge.4  So when Herbert and Mr. McElhany drove over the viaduct they didn’t have to pay a toll.  A sister bridge was built in 1962.  The two bridges are now called the Lewis and Clark Viaduct.  Presently, the eastbound lanes of Interstate Highway 70 travel over the original inter-city viaduct built in 1907.5  When my mother and I crossed the Kansas River today, we were driving on the same bridge that Herbert and Lena drove on.

(From The Official Automobile Blue Book 19206)

Upon entering Missouri, the speed law was: “‘Careful and prudent manner’; not exceeding 25 miles per hour.”7  After crossing the bridge, the two-car caravan somehow lost their way in Kansas City, Missouri.  They “drove around in it for about 2 hours trying to get out.”8  Possibly they were trying to exit the city on the King of Trails Highway.  Lena only mentions traveling through one town between Kansas City and their final destination, Fort Scott, which doesn’t provide enough information to determine on which side of the Kansas-Missouri border they traveled on.  Florence’s travel log gives additional information: “Drove thru Stillwell, Louisburg, La Cygne, Trading Post, Pleasanton, Linton, Prescott, Fulton, and stayed all night in Ft. Scott.”9  According to a 1924 Rand McNally map of Nebraska and Kansas, the King of Trails Highway does not travel through any of those towns.10  Apparently, the highway they got on was the Jefferson Highway, another north-south transcontinental route.

The Jefferson Highway was envisioned by Edwin Thomas Meredith, a businessman and political activist of Des Moines, Iowa.11  He and a group of associates organized the national Jefferson Highway Association in 1915, establishing its terminal points as Winnipeg, Canada and New Orleans, Louisiana.  This gave the Jefferson Highway the distinction of being the first international route to transect the United States.  The highway was named in honor of President Thomas Jefferson for his role in the Louisiana Purchase.  It was also known as the “From Pine to Palm” route and “The Vacation Route of America.”

The Jefferson Highway Association published a guide book in 1923 to assist tourists when they were traveling on the Jefferson Highway.12  The image below is a map of three branches of the Jefferson Highway from Kansas City, Missouri to Fort Scott, Kansas.  The center branch goes through some of the towns in Florence’s list.  The map also shows four branches within the city limits.  This is one example of road designations in the early 1900s that confused automobile tourists.

(Courtesy of Jefferson Highway Association)

While in Kansas City, Missouri, my mother and I decided to go to the National World War 1 Memorial.  World War 1 ended on November 11, 1918 and the site for this Memorial was dedicated on November 1, 1921.  At the time of their trip to Texas, Herbert and Lena had two sons serving in the army, Clarence and Edgar.13

(Photograph by MRW October 22, 2019)
(Photograph by MRW October 22, 2019)
(Photograph by MRW October 22, 2019)
(Photograph by MRW October 22, 2019)
A view of Kansas City, Missouri, from the observation deck of the Liberty Memorial Tower (Photograph by MRW October 22, 2019)

From our motel in Kansas City, Kansas, it took about 45 minutes to get to the Memorial and we found the location quite easily.  When we left the memorial, we chose to take the city streets instead of a freeway and it took us about 45 minutes until we were out of the suburbs of the city, only having a little difficulty staying on our route.  Then it took another twenty minutes to arrive at Belton, the town where Lena wrote that they had their dinner.  Belton has an historical main street and we decided to have our lunch at a café that was decorated with Betty Boop and other retro décor.  It was nearly 2:00 PM when we ordered our lunch, a bison burger for me and a grilled ham and cheese for my mother.

(Photograph by MRW October 22, 2019)
This restored building in Belton, Missouri, is where we ate our lunch. (Photograph by MRW October 22, 2019)

When we left Belton, we traveled on a winding country road (Route Y), which eventually took us across the state border, back into Kansas. Upon arriving at Louisburg, one of the towns Florence mentioned, our only option to continue toward Fort Scott was U. S. Highway 69, a modern freeway.  A few times we got off the freeway to drive through towns in Florence’s list.  Two of the towns are utilizing old buildings for public libraries.  In Prescott, the library had formerly been a school house and we were invited inside to see the upstairs room that was set up as an historical classroom. We finally arrived at our motel at 5:00 PM.

Louisburg Public Library is in a 1917 building.(Photograph by MRW October 22, 2019)

Notes:

  1. Kansas City, Missouri, 1915, Business District, http://www.mygenealogyhound.com/vintage-photographs/missouri-photographs/MO-Kansas-City-Missouri-1915-Business-District-historic-photo.html.
  2. Automobile Blue Book Publishing Company, The Official Automobile Blue Book 1917, vol. 5 (New York: Automobile Blue Book Publishing Company, 1917): 1102, https://ia800405.us.archive.org/15/items/case_gv1024_a92_1917_vol_5/case_gv1024_a92_1917_vol_5.pdf.
  3. Automobile Blue Book Publishing Company, The Official Automobile Blue Book 1920, vol. 7 (New York: Automobile Blue Book Publishing Company, 1920): 165, https://ia601208.us.archive.org/26/items/case_gv1024_a92_1920_v_7/case_gv1024_a92_1920_v_7.pdf.
  4. Intercity Viaduct, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intercity_Viaduct.
  5. Intercity Viaduct, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intercity_Viaduct.
  6. Automobile Blue Book Publishing Company, The Official Automobile Blue Book 1920, vol. 7: 65-66.
  7. Automobile Blue Book Publishing Company, The Official Automobile Blue Book 1920, vol. 7: 863.
  8. Lena Bevers, Our Trip to Texas (unpublished, 1919): 3A.
  9. B. Winkelmann, Our Trip to Texas [Transcription of Our Trip to Texas by Florence Bevers, 1919] (unpublished, n. d.): 2.
  10. Rand McNally and Company, Commercial Atlas of America, “Auto Trails Map, District No. 12, Southern Nebraska, Eastern Colorado, Kansas, Northeastern New Mexico, Northern Oklahoma” (Chicago: Rand McNally & Company, 1924): 372-373, https://www.davidrumsey.com/luna/servlet/detail/RUMSEY~8~1~201708~3000668:AutoTrails-Map,-Southern-Nebraska.
  11. Iowa Department of Transportation, History of the Interstate Trail, Jefferson Highway and Jefferson Association: 1, https://iowadot.gov/autotrails/history-of-the-jefferson-highway.
  12. Jefferson Highway Association, International Tourist Guide, Jefferson Highway (Saint Joseph, Missouri: Combs Printing Co., 1923): 25, https://jeffersonhighway.org/resources/Documents/JH-International-Tourist-Guide-1923.pdf.
  13. C. M. Bevers, personal communication with E. J. Jones (October 17, 2019).

Day Nine: Atchison to Kansas City, Kansas

October 21, 2019

Retracing Lena Huppler Bevers’ Travel Log

Tues. – Oct. 21.

Left Horton about 8:30 A. M.  Had dinner in Atchison.  Had to stay about 4 hours while we got our car fixed.  Left there about 4:30 P. M. and drove until 8 o’clock.  Had supper and stayed all nite in Kansas City, Kan. – Lena Bevers

When Herbert Bevers and Mr. McElhany got on the road on October 21, 1919, they started out from Horton, Kansas at 8:30 AM.  Horton is 12 miles south of Hiawatha and about five miles west of Everest.  The town cannot be found on the running directions of Route 101 of The Official Automobile Blue Book 1920 (see below) because Horton is west of the route described, but starting at mile 18.1 we can follow the route that the two cars probably took to get to Kansas City, Kansas.  Florence Bevers wrote in her travel log that they drove through Everest, Huron, Lancaster, Shannon, Leavenworth, Lansing, Wallula and Piper.1  Many of these towns are listed in Route 101. The introduction to Route 101 states that this route is a section of the King of Trails – confirmation that Herbert Bevers and Mr. McElhany were driving on the King of Trails.2

A section of a 1924 Rand-McNally map showing a route from Horton to Kansas City, Kansas.3

When the two cars arrived in Atchison, Herbert had to get their car fixed which took about four hours.  Florence stated “they fixed the timer on our car.”4  In the above extract from the 1920 Blue Book, there is an advertisement for a garage.5  Maybe this is where the work was done on the Bevers’ car.  When Florence wrote “timer,” perhaps she was referring to the odometer, which would have been very important for keeping track of the distance traveled, if they were following running directions, such as those in the 1920 Blue Book

In the description of Atchison above, at the end of the article it mentions the “splendid” public buildings: a $125,000 Atchison County Court House and a $100,000 U. S. Post Office.6  When my mother and I left our motel, we drove around the city to see some of the sights.  We went to the courthouse, the post office, the river front and the pedestrian mall.  I needed to mail a letter so I went inside the post office to buy envelopes and stamps.  The woodwork in the lobby was beautiful.

Atchison County Court House (Photograph by MRW October 21, 2019)
In 1869, Abraham Lincoln gave an address near the corner of 5th Street and Parallel Street in Atchison, Kansas (Photograph by MRW October 21, 2019)
U. S. Post Office, Atchison, Kansas (Photograph by MRW October 21, 2019)
Interior of the U. S. Post Office, Atchison, Kansas (Photograph by MRW October 21, 2019)
Amelia Earhart was born in Atchison, Kansas. A bronze statue of her stands in the middle of the pedestrian mall of Commercial Street, Atchison, Kansas. Around the base of the statue are the words: “Let there be peace on earth, and let it begin with me.” (Photograph by MRW October 21, 2019)
Commercial Street, Atchison, Kansas, about 19107 (Courtesy of My Genealogy Hound)

After our tour of Atchison, we headed south on U. S. Highway 73 which closely follows the King of Trails route.  At mile 66.9 in the Route 101 running directions above, it tells the driver to pass a federal prison on the left.8  When we reached the point on U. S. Highway 73 where it seemed the prison should be, we searched the landscape for a building that looked like a prison.  Finally, as we came over a hill, there on the left was a huge building.  It was the United States Penitentiary at Leavenworth, a very impressive building.  A sign in front of the grounds declared that photos were not to be taken, so I cannot post any pictures.  Construction of the building began in March 1897 and continued for about 25 years.9  To see a picture of the prison, go to the Federal Bureau of Prisons website: https://www.bop.gov/locations/institutions/lvn/index.jsp.

Between Leavenworth and Kansas City, instead of the farm land we had been viewing for a week, we traveled through urban and suburban commercial districts and residential districts.  U. S. Highway 73 becomes a modern four-lane highway south of Lansing.  According to the introduction to Route 101 above, the Bevers family drove on dirt until they were within 17 miles of Kansas City, then they drove on macadam.10  Leaving Atchison at 4:30 PM, they drove about 55 miles and arrived in Kansas City about 8:00 PM. On this stretch, they drove almost 16 miles per hour.

Upon our approach to Kansas City, Kansas, my mother and I had difficulty finding our way to our motel, because our printed instructions weren’t correct, and I couldn’t understand how to read the Triptik from AAA.  So, we entered the address of the motel in the Garman navigation device and trusted it to lead us to the motel. By using this method, we had to take a freeway to get to our destination.  It worked and we arrived at our motel around 3:00 PM. 

Notes:

  1. B. Winkelmann, Our Trip to Texas [Transcription of Our Trip to Texas by Florence Bevers, 1919] (unpublished, n. d.): 2.
  2. Automobile Blue Book Publishing Company, The Official Automobile Blue Book 1920, vol. 7 (New York: Automobile Blue Book Publishing Company, 1920): 163-64, https://ia601208.us.archive.org/26/items/case_gv1024_a92_1920_v_7/case_gv1024_a92_1920_v_7.pdf.
  3. Rand McNally and Company, Commercial Atlas of America, “Auto Trails Map, District No. 12, Southern Nebraska, Eastern Colorado, Kansas, Northeastern New Mexico, Northern Oklahoma” (Chicago: Rand McNally & Company, 1924): 372-73, https://www.davidrumsey.com/luna/servlet/detail/RUMSEY~8~1~201708~3000668:AutoTrails-Map,-Southern-Nebraska.
  4. B. Winkelmann, Our Trip to Texas: 2.
  5. Automobile Blue Book Publishing Company, The Official Automobile Blue Book 1920, vol. 7: 71.
  6. Automobile Blue Book Publishing Company, The Official Automobile Blue Book 1920, vol. 7: 71.
  7. Commercial Street, Atchison, Kansas, (ca. 1910), http://www.mygenealogyhound.com/vintage-postcards/kansas-postcards/KS-Atchison-Kansas-Commercial-Street-vintage-postcard.html#
  8. Automobile Blue Book Publishing Company, The Official Automobile Blue Book 1920, vol. 7: 164.
  9. United States Penitentiary, Leavenworth, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Penitentiary,_Leavenworth.
  10. Automobile Blue Book Publishing Company, The Official Automobile Blue Book 1920, vol. 7: 163.

Day Eight: Percival, Iowa to Atchison, Kansas

October 20, 2019

Retracing Lena Huppler Bevers’ Travel Log

Mon. – Oct. 20.

Stayed in Auburn till 12 A. M. while they fixed on the cars.  Ate dinner and then we pulled out.  Got into Horton about 6 P. M.  Had supper and stayed all night. – Lena Bevers

Lena writes in her travel log that the traveling party spent the morning of October 20 in Auburn, Nebraska because the men needed to fix their cars.  Florence adds that “they fixed the fan on our car and the frame on McElhaney’s car.”1  My mother and I didn’t head down the road right away either.  In the 2018 AAA TourBook Guide for Nebraska, my mother found the Arbor Day Farm in Nebraska City.  This farm is operated by the Arbor Day Foundation, whose mission statement is: “We inspire people to plant, nurture, and celebrate trees.”2  We spent the morning viewing some of their informative exhibits, walking one of their trails and experiencing a very unique attraction: Treetop Village.  If you are looking for evidence that you still have a kid in you, then try this out.

(Photograph by MRW October 20, 2019)

Lena stated that they headed down the road from Auburn at 12:00 PM after they ate dinner.  Today we started down the road from Nebraska City about 12:30 PM after sharing a caramel apple at the Arbor Day Farm.  U. S. Highway 75 roughly follows the King of Trails Highway until north of Dawson, Nebraska, then U. S. Highway 73 follows the King of Trails.  Florence recorded that they traveled through Howe, Stella, and Verdon in Nebraska, then Reserve and Hiawatha in Kansas.3  The two-car caravan ended their day in Horton, Kansas at about 6:00 PM.  In six hours, they had traveled about 63 miles, at not much more than 10 miles per hour.

Extract of Route 1041 from The Official Automobile Blue Book 19174

When my mother and I traveled down U. S. Highway 75, we went past and through several very small towns, for example Verdon has a population of 172.  We could not find a business district in Verdon nor did we find one in Reserve.  Auburn, the town where the Bevers family spent the previous night is small also, as well as Horton where they stopped on this day.  Hiawatha was the largest town we drove through.  It was very interesting to see the well-maintained historical buildings there.

Hetzel’s Block in Auburn, Nebraska, dated 1890 (Photograph by MRW October 20, 2019)
This building in Horton is dated 1915. The stone above the window says “Motor Inn.” (Photograph by MRW October 20, 2019)
Originally called the Hiawatha Memorial Auditorium, this 1920 building houses the Brown County Historical Society. (Photograph by MRW October 20, 2019)
Brick paved streets encircle the Courthouse Square of Hiawatha. (Photograph by MRW October 20, 2019)
Lawrence Building, Hiawatha, Kansas, dated 1896 (Photograph by MRW October 20, 2019)

In 1919, the speed laws in Kansas were: “‘Reasonable and proper.’ ‘A rate of speed in excess of 25 miles an hour shall be presumptive evidence of driving at a rate which is not careful and prudent in case of injury to the person or property of another.’  Twelve miles per hour in city limits; eight miles an hour at crossings, intersections, bridges, curves, descents, etc.  Six miles an hour at city intersections.”5  The 1920 edition of The Official Automobile Blue Book informed its readers that: “There is now a great interest in Kansas in the matter of good roads, and many miles of macadam, brick and concrete are being constructed under the supervision of the state highway commission.”6

When the Bevers family passed through Hiawatha, they crossed over another transcontinental highway. Below is a section of a Rand McNally map dated 1924, designating the King of Trails Highway with the number 27.7  (As I’ve mentioned before, this number corresponds to the map legend, it is not a highway number assigned by a governmental agency.)  At Hiawatha the King of Trails intersects with the Pikes Peak Ocean-to-Ocean Highway (number 47 on the map.)  The Ocean-to-Ocean Highway connected New York City with Los Angeles.8

Section of Rand McNally Map of Nebraska & Kansas, 1924
Ocean to Ocean Highway, 1913 (Public Domain; Courtesy of Federal Highway Administration)

We didn’t stay in Horton as Lena’s family did because we weren’t able to locate online a motel in Horton, so instead we made a reservation in Atchison, Kansas.  Before leaving Horton for our motel, we stopped at Werner Wagon Works.  The proprietors restore and manufacture wagons in the style that were used in the eighteen hundreds.  They kindly gave us a tour of their workshop.  It was fascinating to see and imagine how our ancestors traveled before automobiles were invented.

An army escort wagon that will be restored by Werner Wagon Works. (Photograph by MRW October 20, 2019)
A restored wagon completed about 1991 (Photograph by MRW October 20, 2019)
Some of the restoration work is completed with this band saw built in the early nineteen hundreds. (Photograph by MRW October 20, 2019)

Notes:

  1. B. Winkelmann, Our Trip to Texas [Transcription of Our Trip to Texas by Florence Bevers, 1919] (unpublished, n. d.): 2.
  2. Arbor Day Foundation, https://www.arborday.org/generalinfo/about.cfm.
  3. B. Winkelmann, Our Trip to Texas: 2.
  4. Automobile Blue Book Publishing Company, Official Automobile Blue Book 1917, vol. 5 (New York: Automobile Blue Book Publishing Company, 1917): 1099-1100, https://ia800405.us.archive.org/15/items/case_gv1024_a92_1917_vol_5/case_gv1024_a92_1917_vol_5.pdf.
  5. Automobile Blue Book Publishing Company, Official Automobile Blue Book 1917, vol. 5: 1234.
  6. Automobile Blue Book Publishing Company, Official Automobile Blue Book 1920, vol. 7 (New York: Automobile Blue Book Publishing Company, 1920): 859, https://ia601208.us.archive.org/26/items/case_gv1024_a92_1920_v_7/case_gv1024_a92_1920_v_7.pdf.
  7. Rand McNally and Company, Commercial Atlas of America, “Auto Trails Map, District No. 12, Southern Nebraska, Eastern Colorado, Kansas, Northeastern New Mexico, Northern Oklahoma” (Chicago: Rand McNally & Company, 1924): 372-373, https://www.davidrumsey.com/luna/servlet/detail/RUMSEY~8~1~201708~3000668:AutoTrails-Map,-Southern-Nebraska.
  8. Rick Martin, “The Highway,” Pikes Peak Ocean to Ocean Highway, http://www.ppoo.org/.